Catherine Drennan states nothing in her own work thrills her a lot more than the process of discovery. But Drennan, a teacher of biology and biochemistry, is not referring to her landmark research on necessary protein structures that may play an important role in reducing the world’s waste carbons.
“Really the essential interesting thing in my situation is seeing my students ask great questions, problem-solve, and do something dazzling using what they’ve learned,” she says.
For Drennan, research and training are complementary passions, both moving coming from a deep sense of “moral responsibility.” Everyone else, she claims, “should make a move, considering their expertise, to produce some kind of contribution.”
Drennan’s own research portfolio attests to this feeling of mission. Since her arrival at MIT twenty years ago, she’s centered on characterizing and harnessing metal-containing enzymes that catalyze complex chemical reactions, including the ones that break-down carbon compounds.
She got her come from the area as a graduate student in the University of Michigan, where she became captivated by supplement B12. This huge supplement contains cobalt and is important for amino acid metabolic process, the correct development of this back, and avoidance of specific kinds of anemia. Bound to proteins in food, B12 is revealed during food digestion.
“Back then, individuals were recommending just how B12-dependent enzymatic reactions worked, and I wondered the way they might be appropriate when they didn’t understand what B12-dependent enzymes appeared as if,” she recalls. “I understood we needed to work out how B12 is bound to protein to really know very well what had been taking place.”
Drennan seized on X-ray crystallography in an effort to visualize molecular structures. Making use of this strategy, which involves bouncing X-ray beams down a crystallized sample of a protein of interest, she figured out exactly how supplement B12 is bound to a necessary protein molecule.
“No one had formerly prevailed like this to secure a B12-bound protein structure, which turned out to be gorgeous, through a protein fold surrounding a novel setup regarding the cofactor,” claims Drennan.
Carbon-loving microbes reveal the way
These studies of B12 led directly to Drennan’s one-carbon work. “Metallocofactors eg B12 are essential not just clinically, in environmental procedures,” she states. “Many microbes that live on carbon monoxide, co2, or methane — eating carbon waste or transforming carbon — usage metal-containing enzymes inside their metabolic pathways, also it seemed like an all-natural extension to analyze them.”
A number of Drennan’s earliest work in this area, internet dating from very early 2000s, revealed a cluster of metal, nickel, and sulfur atoms during the center of this enzyme carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH). This alleged C-cluster serves hungry microbes, permitting them to “eat” carbon monoxide and co2.
Current experiments by Drennan analyzing the structure of the C-cluster-containing enzyme CODH revealed that as a result to air, it can alter designs, with sulfur, metal, and nickel atoms cartwheeling into various jobs. Experts hunting for brand new avenues to cut back carbon dioxide took note of this advancement. CODH, advised Drennan, might show a powerful tool for changing waste carbon dioxide into a less environmentally destructive compound, such as for example acetate, that might also be used for professional functions.
Drennan has additionally been investigating the biochemical pathways in which microbes breakdown hydrocarbon byproducts of crude oil production, such toluene, an ecological pollutant.
“It’s very hard chemistry, but we’d prefer to built a family group of enzymes to function on all kinds of hydrocarbons, which may give us some potential for cleaning up a variety of oil spills,” she claims.
The risk of weather change has increasingly galvanized Drennan’s analysis, propelling this lady toward brand-new objectives. A 2017 study she co-authored in Science detailed a formerly as yet not known chemical pathway in ocean microbes that leads toward creation of methane, a formidable greenhouse gasoline: “I’m worried the ocean will likely make more methane since the world warms,” she says.
Drennan hopes the woman work may shortly help reduce steadily the planet’s greenhouse gas burden. Commercial companies have begun making use of the chemical paths that she scientific studies, in one instance using a proprietary microbe to capture carbon dioxide produced during metal production — prior to it being circulated in to the environment — and convert it into ethanol.
“Reengineering microbes in order for enzymes simply take not really a small, but a countless carbon dioxide out of this environment — it is an location I’m really excited about,” claims Drennan.
Creating a meaningful life within the sciences
At MIT, she’s discovered tremendously hot greeting on her behalf attempts to address the environment challenge.
“There’s been a change in the past ten years roughly, with additional pupils centered on research which allows us to fuel our planet without destroying it,” she states.
In Drennan’s lab, a postdoc, Mary Andorfer, and a increasing junior, Phoebe Li, are currently attempting to inhibit an enzyme within an oil-consuming microbe whose unfortunate residence in refinery pipelines leads to erosion and spills. “They are really stoked up about this research from the environmental perspective and even made a movie about their microorganism,” states Drennan.
Drennan delights inside sort of passion for technology. In senior school, she thought biochemistry had been dried out and lifeless, with no relevance to real-world dilemmas. It wasn’t until university that she “saw biochemistry as cool.”
The deeper she delved into the properties and processes of biological organisms, the more options she discovered. X-ray crystallography provided a perfect platform for research. “Oh, what enjoyable to inform the story of a three-dimensional structure — why it is interesting, what it can considering its form,” claims Drennan.
The sun and rain that excite Drennan about study in architectural biology — catching spectacular images, discerning connections among biological systems, and telling stories — come into play in her teaching. In 2006, she obtained a $1 million grant through the Howard Hughes healthcare Institute (HHMI) on her educational initiatives that use inventive artistic resources to interact undergraduates in chemistry and biology. This woman is both an HHMI detective as well as an HHMI professor, recognition of the woman parallel accomplishments in research and training, and a 2015 MacVicar Faculty Fellow on her behalf sustained contribution on training of undergraduates at MIT.
Drennan tries to achieve MIT students early. She taught basic biochemistry classes from 1999 to 2014, and in autumn 2018 taught her first basic biology class.
“I visit a countless undergraduates majoring in computer technology, and I wish to convince all of them associated with the worth of these procedures,” she states. “we tell them they are going to require chemistry and biology principles to solve important problems someday.”
Drennan joyfully migrates among numerous disciplines, learning as she goes. It’s a example she hopes the woman students will absorb. “i would like all of them to visualize the world of technology and show what they may do,” she says. “Research goes in different guidelines, and now we want to deliver the way we instruct more in line with our research.”
She’s got large objectives on her students. “They’ll venture out in the world as great teachers and scientists,” Drennan claims. “however it’s most crucial that they be great human beings, taking good care of other individuals, asking what they can perform to really make the globe a much better place.”
This article appears in the Spring 2019 issue of Energy Futures, the magazine associated with MIT Energy Initiative.